The Nobel Prizes (Sweden: Nobelpriset, Norway: Nobelprisen) are annual prizes awarded to individuals and organizations who have made outstanding contributions to the field of chemistry by the Swedish Academy of Sciences, the Swedish Academy, the Karolinska Institute, and the Norwegian Nobel Committee. They were created at the behest of Alfred Nobel in 1895, who demanded that the prizes be managed by the Nobel Foundation.
Nobel Prizes are awarded in the fields of Physics, Chemistry, Physiology, or Medicine, Literature, and Peace (the Nobel Peace Prize is described as "the person who has done the most to improve relations between nations, to eliminate or diminish positions"), and to form peace conventions and conferences. drive ").
Alfred Nobel was the most famous Swedish chemist, engineer, and industrialist with the invention of dynamite. He died in 1896. He bequeathed his "remaining property" to be used to create five Nobel Prizes in his will. The first Nobel Prizes were awarded in 1901. The awards are presented at the annual Nobel Prize in Stockholm on December 10. The Nobel Prize in Economics was established in 1968 by the Swedish central bank, Sveriges Riksbank, to contribute to the economy.
Award ceremonies are held annually. Each recipient (known as a "laureate") receives a gold medal, a diploma, and a cash prize. The cash prize of the Nobel Prize in 2021 is SEK 10,000,000 (Swedish Krona). Although the Nobel Peace Prize can be awarded to more than three organizations, the prize cannot be shared among more than three people. Although Nobel laureates do not die, if a person receives an award and dies before receiving it, the award is given.
Since 1901, the Nobel Prizes and the 1969 Nobel Memorial Prize have been awarded to 962 people and 253 organizations 25 times.  Four people have won more than one Nobel Prize.
Nobel Prize in Physics 2021
The 2021 Nobel Prize in Physics will be awarded to Syukuro Manabe, Klaus Hasselmann, and the other half to Giorgio Paris. They laid the groundwork for our knowledge of Earther's climate and how humans affect him, as well as the theory of disordered materials and the phenomena of chance.
Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2021
It is a difficult art to build molecules. The Benjamin List and David McMillan are awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 2021 for their precise new tool for molecular construction: organocatalysis. This has had a major impact on drug research and has greened the chemistry.
The 2021 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
The 2021 Medical Award is presented by David Julius and Ardem Patapoutian. Their discoveries revealed one of the mysteries of nature by explaining the molecular basis of sensing heat, cold, and mechanical force, which are fundamental to our ability to sense, interpret, and influence our inner and outer environment.
Nobel Prize in Literature 2021
The Nobel Prize in Literature for 2021 is awarded to author Abdul Razak Gurney for "the incompatible and merciless interplay between the effects of colonialism and the fate of a refugee in the Gulf and between cultures and continents."
Gurnah was born in 1948 and grew up on the Indian Ocean island of Zanzibar, but came to England as a refugee in the late 1960s. He has published ten novels and several short stories. The theme of refugee disruption continues throughout the work.
Nobel Peace Prize 2021
The Norwegian Nobel Committee believes that freedom of expression and freedom of information are important conditions for democracy and protection from war and strife. Winners of the 2021 Peace Prize are representatives of journalists who are advocating for this ideal in a world where democracy and freedom of the press are deteriorating. The Norwegian Nobel Committee has decided to award the 2021 Nobel Peace Prize to Maria Ressa and Dmitry Muratov "for their efforts to protect democracy and freedom of expression, which are conditions for lasting peace."
Zamira Begencheva is an English teacher at the Department of Linguistics at the Oguz han University of Engineering and Technology in Turkmenistan. (Article is cited from Internet sources.)