THE ROLE OF AGROSENOSIS IN REDUCEING THE EFFECT OF WINDS FROM THE ARAL REGION TO TURKMENISTAN
Science and Technology
Our beloved country is astonishing to those who have seen it with its beautiful nature, healing air, medicinal herbs in a thousand pains. The peculiarities of the climatic conditions of our country form adaptations to these conditions in plants. In order to adapt to environmental conditions and to overcome harsh conditions, plants need to form biologically active substances. In this regard, in the scientific encyclopedic book "Medicinal Plants of Turkmenistan", I would like to mention that the Turkmen land has a rich reserve of ecologically clean plants, animals and raw materials. The arid (arid) climate features (high summer temperatures, dry air, high levels of solar radiation) contribute to the accumulation of biologically active substances that have a special healing effect on raw materials, ”he said. In the prosperous period of the sovereign state, human health is at the forefront of our Fatherland, where the fair policy of "the state is for the people" is being celebrated. Dusty winds, on the other hand, are one of the most pressing issues in human ecology and health. The direction of mixing of dusty, salty winds and the speed of the winds adversely affect the ecology of the atmosphere and the soil cover. As is well known, today the focus of the world is on global issues such as environmental degradation and the increase in saline soils. The Turkmen leader is intensifying international cooperation in the field of environmental policy and further strengthening the framework of international agreements. The proposals made by the President at the UN meetings, the Rio + 20 World Summit and other major forums are aimed at addressing the issues of universal importance. These include UN proposals to pay special attention to the Aral Sea issue. Dusty and salty winds are blowing from the Aral Sea, which was formed as a result of the drying up of the Aral Sea, to the territory of our country, i.e. to the northern districts of Dashoguz and Lebap provinces. Northeast winds predominate in the northern part of Turkmenistan. This causes the dust of the Aral Sea to enter the territory of our country. In the plains, the average annual wind speed is 3.2-4.2 m / s. is equal to However, the wind speed is 15 m / s. there are days to come. These winds cause the salinity of the lands of those districts. A scientifically based study of dusty, salty winds, firstly, to prove that dusty, salty winds infiltrating Turkmenistan are coming from the Aral Sea, and secondly, on the basis of that information, it is also working on preventive measures to prevent dusty, salty winds from infecting the soil and agriculture. The article deals with the study of the direction of the dusty winds in the Aral Sea region of Turkmenistan and their impact on soil salinization and agriculture, and in this regard the use of medicinal plants based on world experience. Wind accidents affect almost all sectors of the economy. In particular, dusty, salty winds are one of the causes of soil salinization. Determining the specific direction of winds entering the Aral Sea region of the country, analyzing the direction and speed of these winds in the northern districts of Dashoguz province of Turkmenistan, including Lebap province, keeping the dust in the opposite direction of the dusty winds in the opposite direction. The creation of agrosenoses of the plant, i.e. the buoy used as a, will be multifaceted. Wind accidents affect almost all sectors of the economy. In particular, dusty, salty winds are one of the causes of soil salinization. Various efforts are currently being made to reduce its impact in the Aral Sea states, which is why it is important to assess the direction and speed of winds blowing from that region in determining the impact of the Aral Sea. The northeastern winds are predominant in the northern part of Turkmenistan and the northern and northeastern winds are in the northern districts of Lebap province. The data was analyzed by data from meteorological stations in Darganata, Dashoguz, and Shasenem, and it was confirmed that the winds causing the salinization of the lands came from the Aral region. The nature of the earth's surface (large sandy parts) contributes to the formation of dust storms throughout Turkmenistan, especially during the spring and summer months, when strong winds blow. The rivers that flowed into the island consisted only of the Amu Darya and the Syr Darya. Due to these large rivers, the Aral Sea receives about 56 cubic kilometers of water a year. Extensive irrigation in the Aral Sea since the 1960s, dredged canals and reservoirs have greatly reduced the amount of water flowing into the sea. In some cases, the seabed has been completely cut off. As a result, the Aral Sea has dropped by 15 meters in the last quarter of a century. Its area has been reduced by more than half. In these areas the direction of air flow has changed and the climate has become more continental. Throughout the year, dusty winds with an average speed of 15–20 meters began to blow in the South and Southwest directions from the formed Aralgum. As a result, pasture lands along the Amu Darya River, especially those suitable for agriculture, have begun to decline. The dusty dust that rises to the sky through the winds and spreads in all directions is absorbed into the soil. As a result of the ingestion of large amounts of salt in the soil, the composition of the soil, the norm of salinity, changes, i.e. the soil begins to saline. As a result of soil salinization, soil fertility decreases, salt-tolerant plants begin to dry up, and biodiversity decreases. Turkmenistan is working hard to prevent the effects of the Aral Sea, such as soil degradation and desertification. Under the leadership of our esteemed President, our country is actively involved in solving the environmental problems caused by the influence of the Aral Sea. This is evidenced by the work being done on the creation of 20,000 hectares of forest zones in the Botendag plateau in the northwest of Dashoguz province. The National Forest Program will reduce the negative impact of the ecological situation on the Aral Sea, which affects not only the seabed, but also all parts of the region, especially Dashoguz province and the northern districts of Lebap province. One of the main measures is to carry out large-scale reclamation works. It is aimed at cultivating salt-tolerant, sustainable growth-tolerant, nutritious and other beneficial plants in the vicinity of saline and groundwater. At the same time, it is important to rely on world experience, or rather, India, which is world-renowned for its pharmaceutical production, has gained a lot of experience in the development of saline agrosenoses in saline areas, as well as in the development of saline soils and the expansion of medicinal reserves. In this regard, the creation of dyed agrocenoses is also important in the Dashoguz and Lebap provinces, which cover the Amu Darya. It is a plant that has proven itself to be an effective crop in difficult to cultivate areas. Good reclamation conditions for cotton and other agricultural crops are being created in the areas adjacent to the oases of Turkmenistan, in the second saline fields. The plant is 120-150 cm tall and is a perennial plant from the legume family. The leaves are 7–15 cm and the root under the soil is 1 m. Its important aspects in the treatment of diseases are also noted in the multi-volume scientific-encyclopedic book of the President of Turkmenistan Gurbanguly Berdimuhamedov "Medicinal plants of Turkmenistan". This, on the one hand, contributes to the increase of medicines and, on the other hand, to the development of saline lands. Soil salinity is one of the main threats to the dispersal of this soil. Under the influence of various natural and morphological, physico-chemical, biological conditions, salt can have two effects on the soil: salty and alkaline, but especially the electrolyte, which has a great influence on the formation of soil. Weak physical conditions, such as excessive sodium content and high pH, can lead to poor vegetation cover in alkaline soils. A number of medicinal and aromatic plants are needed for export and for domestic requirements of the country. Some of them are unusual plants in nature, i.e. they do not grow in fertile soils. The coastal areas suffer mainly from saline and sodium soils, and the use of salt-tolerant medicinal and aromatic crops will be more effective there. According to a study by the Indian Institute of Research, buoyancy is also an important plant in removing salt. During the inspection season, the crop grows without any adjustments and the pH of the field soil stabilizes. As soil pH changes, so does the yield of the buoyancy, which indicates that the nature of the buoyancy is halophytic, meaning that the productivity of buoyancy biomass is higher in soils with a higher pH environment than in conventional soils. If cotton and wheat are planted in 3-4 years after planting, they will be very good. This is because the research shows that in addition to reducing the salt content of the buoyant soil, it also enriches it with protein. In Dashoguz and Lebap provinces, winds have been blown from the north-east, from the Aral region, and according to world experience, it is proposed to develop medicinal plants in the saline Aral Sea region.
Bagul Annamyradova, lecturer in the Department of Ecology and Ecological Technologies of the Oguzhan University of Engineering and Technology of Turkmenistan.