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Science and Technology


The national nature protection program is based on the comprehensive solution of the tasks set in the economic, social and ecological spheres, which is an important condition for the well-being of human beings. According to the latest research, the world produces about 380 million tons of plastic every year. From 1950 to 2018, the world produced about 6.3 billion tons of plastic. About 9% of it was recycled and another 12% was burned. These large amounts of plastic waste are accounted for by the environment, and research has found that 90% of seabirds contain plastic waste in their bodies. By 2020, the mass of plastics produced worldwide will increase from the biomass of all land and sea animals. Some researchers predict that by 2050, the oceans will likely have more residual plastics by weight than fish. Recent research has shown that waste plastics dissipate faster than toxic chemicals, such as Biphenyl A, under the influence of the sun, rain, and other environmental factors. There is a lot of organic pollutants in plastics, which is why scientists now have a big impact on the growth of algae in the sea and rivers. The technology has been developed to produce artificial synthetic fibers (synthons), a new product that has been recycled and used by the population. The purpose of this technology is to use waste plastics as raw materials to obtain commodities that are suitable for the public, including in the garments produced in our country, that is, in the textile industry or in the enterprises concerned, which are the raw materials needed. Of course, this material is synthetic. One of the most popular materials used for insulation is artificial fibers. Artificial fiber is called non-woven material. It is often possible to obtain a material consisting of several layers of fine polyester yarn by adding cotton or wool. When thermally bonded, the fibers combine under the influence of high heat to form a dense fabric that is well protected from the cold and does not deform when washed. This fiber is lighter in weight than conventional fibers and is distinguished by its quick recovery after washing. It does not absorb and retain moisture, nor does it emit an unpleasant odor. The processed fiber, unlike some fibers, does not cause allergies and is safe for human health. The fiber to be processed is expected to be more comprehensive than other fibers. This fiber is distinguished by its softness, impermeability of liquid, elasticity, good thermal insulation and low cost. Polyunsaturated fiber is used in many places, such as in the manufacture of furnished furniture, decorative products, soft toys, and so on. It is widely used as a filter material, especially in aquariums. It can also be used as raw material in related industries. The production technology of artificial fiber extraction has been developed and consists of several stages. Initially, the remaining plastic waste was created. Then there was the physical cleaning of the plastics. In the second step, a non-compliant structure for rolling plastics (a 3 KW motor, a reducer, and a 2-way screwdriver made of stall 40 material) is made of crimping equipment. The total area of ​​the fabricated device is 1 square meter, which consumes less electricity. The third step is to melt the broken plastics and turn them into fiber. The device is made of heat-resistant steel, which is a cone-shaped bunker for casting polypropylene or waste plastics installed in the center, with 4 heating bodies installed. This part of the device serves as an oven. The bodies attached to the furnace were inserted into the left wing of the support tool by means of conductive wires. A heat exchanger device is installed here. The controller (shit) is equipped with a set of heating elements, including an additional conductive wire connector (shida). It helps us get electricity. With this part of the device, the polypropylene is melted in a filter oven. As part of the technology, the 2019 TCS2150502, 220-240V ~ 50HZ fuel compressor has been installed. The device has a 5-meter air duct and is fitted with a special dense brass valve that reduces the amount of air coming into its mouth. Thus, the air coming from the compressor and the liquid dripping from the filter furnace are elongated by the influence of air. The fabricated device is equipped with a fiber-optic collector that is attached to a special support device to store additional, prepared fibers. The container is also heat resistant, which helps to assemble the fibers together. As a result, the technology for extracting artificial fibers from basic waste plastic materials has been developed. A set of equipment for production was built on the basis of the developed technology. Artificial fiber extraction technology from waste plastics has been studied. Experiments on the annual project have been used in household and building materials. The production of artificial fibers from waste plastics will help protect the ecological well-being, that is, the pollution of the seas and oceans, and create a peaceful environment for living things.

Gulnar Ovezdurdyeva, student of the Faculty of Chemistry and Nanotechnology of the Oguzhan University of Engineering and Technology of Turkmenistan.